Deprecated: mysql_connect(): The mysql extension is deprecated and will be removed in the future: use mysqli or PDO instead in /home/noteskt3/public_html/notesvillage/inc.php on line 2
notesvillage

Seminar Topics With Full Content

Gigahertz Counting Rates of NbN Single-Photon Dete

DOWNLOAD NOTES,TUTORIALS,LECTURES,SEMINARS

These page contains different SEMINAR topics that can be used in your final year

Gigahertz Counting Rates of NbN Single-Photon Dete

notesvillage seminar topics

RECENTLY, much interest has emerged in the area of quantum communications (QC) and, in particular, in quantum cryptography. Practical QC systems require ultrafast and very sensitive photon counters [1] with precise timing characteristics [2]. The modern telecommunication industry has already established standard fiber-optic, near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths for communication: 1.3 and 1.55 . The NIR range also seems ripe for future free-space applications. Unfortunately, the most-popular Si avalanche photodiodes (APDs) have their sensitivity restricted by the Si bandgap, so they cannot be directly implemented in the standard fiber-optic communication networks. The material of choice for semiconductor APDs at NIR is InGaAs. The InGaAs APDs in the 1.2- to 1.6- range have already achieved quantum efficiency QE) 20% in single-photon detection mode, but they suffer from large (typically 200 ps) timing jitter and high ( per second) dark counts. In addition, all APDs have to be used in a time-gated mode to reduce dark counts and are characterized by parasitic afterglowing phenomena due to spontaneous photon emission during the intrinsic avalanche process. The actual operational counting rate limit of InGaAs devices is about a few kHz, resulting in the reduced achievable speed of the QC channel down to hundreds of bits per second

The SSPDs under study were fabricated according to a technological procedure described in detail in [6]. The devices were made out of NbN (superconducting transition temperature ) and formed a meander structure with a filling factor of about 0.5 and a total active area of . The meander stripe thickness was 4 nm, and its width was about 100 nm. The detectors were biased with currents just below the meander critical current value (typically 10 to 30 at 4.2 K). Absorption of a single photon generated a voltage response through a hotspot formation mechanism. The supercurrent was expelled from the hotspot, leading to the formation of a resistive region across the stripe.In GHz-counting-rate experiments, we used highly attenuated pulses from a mode-locked fiber laser by Pritel, Inc. This laser was operated at 1550-nm wavelength and produced 1.6-ps-wide pulses with a variable repetition rate up to 10 GHz. In addition, the photon energy could be externally doubled. The SSPD was placed in a helium dewar at 4.2 K and biased with a voltage source through a bias-tee. The output signal connected to the other terminal of the bias-tee was fed through a room-temperature amplifier with 40-dB gain and 0.01- to 18-GHz bandwidth.

DOWNLOAD NOW

ALL THE CONTENTS ARE ZIPPED AND ARE READY TO DOWNLOAD

DOWNLOAD NOW

most searched

  • AMOLED

    AMOLED (active- matrix organic light-emitting diode) is an emerging display technology for use in mobile devices like mobile phones. An active matrix OLED (AMOLED) display consists of OLED pixels that have been deposited or integrated onto a thin film transistor (TFT) array to form a matrix of pixels that illuminate light upon electrical activation, which functions as a series of switch

    View

    • BLUETOOTH BASED SMART SENSOR NETWORKS

      The main challenge in front of Blue tooth developers now is to prove interoperability between different manufactures’ devices and to provide numerous interesting applications. One of such applications is wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks comprise number of small devices equipped with a sensing unit, microprocessors, and wireless communication interface and power source. 1.

      View

      • GREENDROID

        The GreenDroid mobile application processor is a 45-nm multicore research prototype that targets the Android mobile-phone software stack and can execute general-purpose mobile programs with 11 times less energy than today’s most energy-efficient designs, at similar or better performance levels. It does this through the use of a hundred or so automatically generated, highly specialized, energy-re

        View

  • LANDMINE DETECTION USING IMPULSE GROUND PENETRATIN

    A series of measurements has been taken using a set of targets buried in the various types of soil. An FR-127-MSCB (ImGPR) developed by CSIRO. System collects 127 echos or surroundings per second. Each composed of 512 samples with 12bit accuracy. Sounding range vary from 4ns to 32ns. GPR uses bistatic bow-tie antenna which transmits wideband,ultra short duration pulses. GPR unit is suspende

    View

    • LIQUID ELECTRICITY

      With an electrolyte solution the consumer delivers the spent electrolyte back to the ‘filling station’ where it is re-charged by either local power generation or the national power network. Just pump the spent electrolyte out and pump in freshly charged electrolyte literally, liquid electricity. The discharged liquid is also reusable: it can be recharged and then pumped into other vehicle, w

      View

      • Gigahertz Counting Rates of NbN Single-Photon Dete

        We report on the GHz counting rate and jitter of our nanostructured superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). The devices were patterned in 4-nm-thick and about 100-nm-wide NbN meander stripes and covered a 10 m 10 m area. We were able to count single photons at both the visible and infrared telecommunication wavelengths at rates of over 2 GHz with a timing jitter of below 18 ps. We a

        View

  • Rate Control for Robust Video Transmission over Burst-Error Wireless Channels(IEEE)

    We study the problem of rate control for transmission of video over burst-error wireless channels, i.e., channels such that errors tend to occur in clusters during fading periods. In particular we consider a scenario consisting of packet based transmission with automatic repeat request (ARQ) error control and a back channel. We start by showing how the delay constraints in real time video tr

    View

    • ENHANCED ARCHITECTURE FOR MULTIMODALITY FOR REAL TIME MONITORING OF VESSELS IN THE MAURITIAN LAGOON(IEEE)

      This paper is a continuation regarding the proposed architecture on multimodality discussed in [1] by Armoogum et al. It proposes further enhancements on the current architecture and explores other possibilities regarding its application in Mauritius. The enhanced architecture for multimodality is deployed on a 3G network instead using of only conventional GSM network and local phones line.

      View

      • ADVANCES IN FETAL HEARTRATE MONITORING USING SMART PHONES

        In order to narrow the gap, a new system for fetal heart rate monitoring using smart phone is proposed in this paper. Medical systems for FHR monitoring at hospitals are normally quite expensive and not portable. Although there are some recent medical hardware products for mobility, they are not cheap or easy for pregnant women, hence it is simple and portable. The fetal he

        View

  • A Solution to Select Multicast Service Nodes of Hierarchical Overlay Multicast Tree Based on Immune Evolution

    For the reliable real time video transmission of overlay network, optimal multicast service nodes (MSNs) should be selected to build highly efficient hierarchical overlay multicast tree. In this paper, a MSNs selection algorithm based on immune evolution is proposed. MSNs are encoded by real-coded mechanism, and the K-medoids clustering distance is used to measure the similarity between MSN

    View

    • ELECTROSTATIC GRAVITY GRADIOMETER USED IN GOCE MISSION

      The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer Mission (GOCE) will be the first Core Earth Explorer mission in the context of ESA’s Living Planet programme. Currently scheduled for launch in 2007, GOCE will measure highly accurate, high spatial resolution gravity gradients in three dimensions along a well characterised orbit. The mission objectives are to obtain gravity gradient d

      View

      • MICROROBOTICS IN MEDICINE

        Robots capable of handling micrometer size components Deals with the study and application of miniature ones like mobile robots of micrometre scale Prefix has been used subjectively to mean small Characteristic dimensions less than 1 millimeter

        View

  • Password Stealing and Password Reuse Attacks

    Text password is the most popular form of userauthentication on websites due to its convenience and simplicity.However, users’ passwords are prone to be stolen and compromised under different threats and vulnerabilities. Firstly, usersoften select weak passwords and reuse the same passwords acrossdifferent websites. Routinely reusing passwords causes a dominoeffect; when an adversary compromises

    View

    • Smart Note-Taker

      The act of note-taking is a key component of learning in secondary and post-secondary classrooms. Students who take notes retain information from classroom lectures better, even if they never refer to those notes afterward. However, students who are legally blind, and who wish to take notes in their classrooms are at a disadvantage. Simply equipping classrooms with lecture recording systems does n

      View

      • THOUGHT TRANSLATION DEVICE

        EEG-based BCI system.With TTD patient can: answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’ questions, spell out sentences, surf internet.

        View

  • COMPARISON OF INJECTORS IN C.I OF NATURAL GAS WITH ENTRAINED DIESEL

    Natural gas has cost and environmental advantages compared with conventional liquid fuels, and liquefied natural gas can provide useful vehicle range for heavy-duty applications. Westport Innovations’ High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI) system, developed over the past decade, uses late-cycle injection of natural gas, resulting in an engine with performance and efficiency comparable to that of

    View

This is important!

All the contents avaailable in this site are being uploaded by someone else ,or send via mail to the admin.If any of these contents seems to be copyrighted,or from other sites.please contact us, we are obliged to remove the content.The site authorities are not responsible for any copyright issues!!!!

Uploading a file Any user is free to upload study materials to this provided that they are vital and are not copyrighted .The contents will be available in the site after strict monitoring.
Free download For downloading no user account is needed,the users are free to download unlimitedly
We like to hear from you Please feel free to write to us admin@notesvillage.com,we are waiting to hear from you.